The project’s goal is the development of an accurate and powerful methodology to capture and model in 3D complete geometric and colour details of medoeval castles located in the Trentino province. This is useful for the accurate 3D documentation and photo-realistic visualization of large and complex architectural sites.

Representative publications:

Remondino, F., El-Hakim, S., Girardi, S., Rizzi, A., Benedetti, S., Gonzo, L., 2009: 3D Virtual reconstruction and visualization of complex architectures - The 3D-ARCH project. International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Vol. 38(5/W1)

El-Hakim, S., Gonzo, L. Voltolini, F., Girardi, S., Rizzi, A., Remondino, F., Whiting, E., 2007: Detailed 3D Modelling of Castles. International Journal of Architectural Computing, Vol.5(2), pp. 199-220



3 Cime di Lavaredo (Drei Zinnen / Three Peaks)

The aim of the interdisciplinary project is the high-definition 3D survey of the symbol of the UNESCO site of the Dolomites. The geometric data will be used for visualization and animation purposes as well as for geological and stratigraphical studies.

Representative publications:

Remondino, F., Zucca, F., Agugiaro, G., Rizzi, A., Plos, D., Sgrenzaroli, M., 2010: Mapping vertical cliffs - Experiences from the Dolomites mountains. European Lidar Mapping Forum 2010, Den Haag, The Netherlands


3D GIS for archaeological investigations

Current ICT capabilities are ready to move beyond simple 3D recording and visualization, but few analytical tools linking GIS and 3D technologies have been developed for use on the web. This project explores potentially transformative technologies and actively links the fields of 3D modeling and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) by creating and testing new analytical tools for 3D Web GIS environments. Experiments with touchless remote controller (Kinect) are also performed, in order to create a sense of spatial awareness and embodiment in the reconstructed 3D environment. The case study is the UNESCO heritage site of Copan (Honduras) where 3D Web GIS tools are used to investigate ancient human-environment interaction. The project is based upon the results achieved within the MayaArch3D project.

3D-ICONS is an EU-funded project (EU ICT Policy Support Programme) which brings together partners from across Europe with the relevant expertise to digitise architectural and archaeological monuments and buildings in 3D. The project is designed to (i) establish a complete pipeline for the production of 3D replicas of archaeological monuments and historic buildings which covers all technical, legal and organisational aspects, (ii) create 3D models and a range of other materials (images, texts and videos) of a series of internationally important monuments and buildings and (iii) provide content to Europeana library.

Representative publications:

Remondino, F., Menna, F., Koutsoudis, A., Chamzas, C., El-Hakim, S., 2013: Design and implement a reality-based 3D digitisation and modelling project. Proc. IEEE Conference "Digital Heritage 2013", Vol. 1, pp. 137-144, 28 Oct - 1 Nov., Marseille, France

3D Medical Imaging

The project deals with the use of medical data (CT and visible imagery), for various applications and needs, such as:

- creation of artificial hearths (Total Artificial Heart - TAH): an invasive device that needs a correct design, realization and implantation, based on virtual techniques. The aim of the project is to realize a virtual fitting process to better design and implant artificial hearts using CT-based generated 3D geometries of cardiopulmonary and skeletal structures.

Gallo, M., D'Onofrio, A., Tarantini, G., Nocerino, E., Remondino, F., Gerosa, G., 2016: 3D-printing model for complex aortic transcatheter valve treatment. International Journal of Cardiology, Vol. 210, pp. 139–140

- to collect quantitative information of the main neuroanatomical tracts: photogrammetry is used to collect metric information of the main pathways of the white matter of the brain.

De Benedictis, A., Nocerino, E., Menna, F., Remondino, F., Barbareschi, M., Rozzanigo, U., Corsini, F., Olivetti, E., Marras, C.E., Chioffi, F., Avesani P., Sarubbo, S., 2018: Photogrammetry of the Human Brain: A Novel Method for Three-Dimensional Quantitative Exploration of the Structural Connectivity in Neurosurgery and Neurosciences. World Neurosurgery, 115:e279-e291

The PAESTUM project aims to document, survey, study and valorize the heritage Graeco-Roman site of Paestum (south of Italy). Aerial and terrestrial photogrammetry as well as different types of terrestrial laser scanners are employed and combined in order to produce photo-realistic 3D models useful for architectural analyses, visualization and digital preservation.

Representative publications:

Fiorillo, F., Remondino, F., Barba, S., Santoriello, A., De Vita, C.B., Casellato, A., 2013: 3D Digitization and mapping of heritage monuments and comparison with historical drawings. ISPRS Annals of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Vol. II(5/W1), pp. 133-138


APSAT - Ambiente e Paesaggi dei Siti d'Altura del Trentino - is an interdisciplinary project which aims to document, survey, study, analyze and preserve mountainous and hill-top heritage sites located in the Trentino region (Italy). This includes a census with innovative methods of the hilltop sites of the whole of Trentino, a complete surveys of the ecosystems in some sample areas, a multidisciplinary analysis of the data collected that are able to reconstruct the evolution of the anthropic hill-top systems of the whole Trentino, an evaluation of the conservation’s state of the hill-top site’s cultural and environmental heritage, a realization of a webGIS with the datas’ census and a series of publications of reserach’s scientific results.

Representative publications:

Rizzi, A., Baratti, G., Jimenez Fernandez-Palacios, B., Girardi, S., Remondino, F., 2011: 3D Recording for 2D delivering - The employment od 3D models for studies and analyses. Int. Archives of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Vol. 38(5/W16)

ATiPE - Automatic Tie Point Extraction

The goal of the project is to develop an automated procedure to extract tie points from set of images for the successive bundle adjustment phase. We deal with classical aerial/UAV blocks, ordered and unordered terrestrial sequences, short and wide baselines, illumination and scale changes, etc.

Representative publications:

Barazzetti, L., Scaioni, M., Remondino, F., 2010: Orientation and 3D modeling from markerless terrestrial images: combining accuracy with automation. The Photogrammetric Record, Vol. 25(132), pp. 356–381

Remondino, F., Del Pizzo, S., Kersten, T., Troisi, S., 2012: Low-cost and open-source solutions for automated image orientation – A critical overview. Proc. EuroMed 2012 Conference, LNCS 7616, pp. 40-54. Springer, Heidelberg

Behaim Globe

The project deals with the 3D surveying and modeling of the Behaim Globe, the oldest (1492) still existing and intact globe of the earth, preserved in the German National Museum of Nuremberg, Germany. The work is primarily performed using high-resolution digital images and automatic photogrammetric techniques. Triangulation-based laser scanning is employed to fill some gaps in the derived image-based 3D geometry and perform geometric comparisons. The project aims to create high-resolution map-projections and is performed for scientific, conservation, visualization and educational purposes.

Representative publications:

Menna, F., Rizzi, A., Nocerino, E., Remondino, F., Gruen, A., 2012: High resolution 3D modeling of the Behaim globe. Int. Archives of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Vol. 39(5), pp. 115-120


The project aims to improve the governance of energy efficiency (EE) in existing public buildings and reduce energy consumption in different central European areas, especially those less advanced in low carbon approach. For this purpose a OnePlace platform, embedding a 3D energy management system, will be developed and tested in the various pilot areas of the project.

Relevant publications:

A. Nowacka and F. Remondino, 2018: Geospatial data for energy and low carbon cities - overview, experiences and new perspectives. ISPRS Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., Vol. XLII-4, pp. 467-474

Cartography and cadastral maps updating

The project aims to develop a quick, low-cost and efficient image-based methodology to update large scale maps of urban and rural areas. Using helicopter platforms with a dedicated hardware ("heliarm") for the image and geo-referencing data acquisition, photogrammetric blocks are captured and processed to derive man-made features and changes useful to update the maps.

Cartographic Information Extraction and Management

CIEM (Cartographic Information Extraction and Management) deals with the automated extraction of geo-referenced data for a large variety of applications like urban and environmental planning, environmental monitoring, emergency assessment, change detection analyses, etc. The extraction of most of this information is nowadays manually performed, taking long time to achieve a final product. The CIEM project aims to speed up this process developing tools and methodologies for the automated and semi-automated extraction of georeferenced information from images or LiDAR point clouds. Both aerial and terrestrial datasets are considered. CIEM is co-funded within the 7th F.P. 2007-2013 Marie-Curie Actions - GA-2008-226070.

Representative publications:

Nex., F., Rupnik, E., Remondino, F., 2013: Building footprints extraction from oblique imagery. ISPRS Annals of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Vol 2(3/W3), pp.61-66. ISPRS Workshop "Object Extraction for 3D City Models, Road Databases and Traffic Monitoring - Concepts, Algorithms and Evaluation (CMRT13), 12-13 Nov., Antalya, Turkey

Nex, F., Remondino, F., 2012: Automatic roof outlines reconstruction from photogrammetric DSM. ISPRS Annals of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Vol. I(3), pp. 257-262. XXII ISPRS Congress, Melbourne, Australia


CENTRIC (Centre for ExcelleNce in TerRItorial management and Cadastre) aims - in the long term - at the realization of the new Centre of Excellence on territorial management and cadastre in Romania. The future Centre will focus on related domains of great relevance, such as: 3D/4D geospatial data, linked geospatial data, land classification, remotely sensed data, mapping, etc. CENTRIC is funded under the EU H2020 Framework Programme - WIDESPREAD-2014-1 TEAMING.

Dinosaur footprints in 3D

The interdisciplinary project seeks a methodology for the digital surveying and documentation of dinosaur tracks in the Trentino’s alpine areas. Photogrammetry and laser scanning are employed to fulfill all the surveying and geo-paleontological needs and achieve digital 3D models of single footprints or long tracks.

Representative publications:

Remondino, F., Rizzi, A., Girardi, Petti, F., S. Avanzini, M., 2010: 3D Ichnology – Recovering digital 3D models of dinosaur footprints. The Photogrammetric Record, Vol. 25(131), pp. 266–282

La paleontologia in 3D

Dynamic Light is an Interreg - Central Europe project which focusses on reduction of CO2-emissions and enhancement of energy efficiency in public lighting. The project will demonstrate the process of how a city can implement energy efficient lighting starting from the 3D models, GIS data mining and analyses, simulation, strategy development, financial models, procurement rules, implementation and evaluation.

Ecomuseo Argentario

The geological wealth of the Calisio Plateau near Trento (Italy) is known since ancient times by its inhabitants. Some underground resources have played an important role in the development of this territory and the silver mines played a very important role in the the Middle Age. Miners - called canopi - mined the precious metal and created still evident signs and tunnels all over the Plateau. The project aims to digitally count, survey and map (in 2D and 3D) the numerous signs of miners by means of Geomatics and Geoinformatics techniques. High density LiDAR-based DTM data are automatically processed to identify the mining holes and store information like position, height, depth, diameter, depth, etc. in a database useful for analysis and valorization purposes.

Etruscan in 3D & Multimedia Exhibitions

The aim is to reproduce precise digital replicas of some beautiful etruscan tombs and artefacts located in different archaeological areas - Tarquinia and Cerveteri (UNESCO sites), Vulci, Chiusi, Perugia, etc. - and museums using reality-based 3D surveying methodologies. The final photo-realistic 3D models, coupled with multi-spectral studies on the frescoes and panoramic images, will be used to allow virtual visits of the tombs (not always accessible) and multimedia exhibitions which took place in:

  • Stockholm (Sweden), 10 Feb - 2 Sept 2012 - Medelhavsmuseet (Museum of Mediterranean and Near Eastern Antiquities): more than 100,000 visitors (video of the exhibition in Stockholm)

  • Trento (Italy), 10 Sept 2011 - 9 Jan 2012, Museo tridentino di scienze naturali (actual MUSE): more than 9,000 visitors (TV report about the exhibition)

  • Bruxelles (Belgium), 9 Ott 2010 - 24 Apr 2011, Musee du Cinquantenaire: more than 25,000 visitors (video of the exhibition in Bruxelles)

  • Viterbo (Italy), 24 Oct 2015 - 4 May 2016 - Ex Chiesa degli Almadiani

The project includes also the generation of an image-based 3D model of the Sarcophagus of the Spouses.

Representative publications:

Remondino, F., Rizzi, A., Jimenez Fernandez-Palacios, B., Agugiaro, G., Baratti, G., De Amicis, R., 2011: The Etruscan in 3D: from space to underground. Geoinformatics FCE CTU Journal, vol. 6, pp. 283-290


Reliefs tomb:;

Monkey tomb:;

Bartoccini tomb:

Sarcophagus of the Spouses:

Experience Etruria:

The activity analyzes the potential of multispectral imaging for various applications fields. Particularly, terrestrial and UAV acquisitions are acquired and processed in the heritage and agricultural field to derive "invisible" information useful for better investigations, restoration, precision farming, etc.

Representative publications:

Last generation UAV-based multi-spectral camera for agricultural data acquisition - Presentation @ SIFET conference 2017

Candiago, S., Remondino, F., De Giglio, M., Dubbini, M., Gattelli, M., 2015: Evaluating multispectral images and vegetation indices for precision farming applications from UAV images. Remote Sensing, Vol. 7(4), pp. 4026-4047; doi:10.3390/rs70404026

Remondino, F., Rizzi, A., Barazzetti, L., Scaioni, M., Fassi, F., Brumana, R., Pelagotti, A., 2011: Review of geometric and radiometric analyses of paintings. The Photogrammetric Record, Vol. 26(136), pp. 439-461


Geometric processing of high-resolution satellite imagery

The goal of the project is to study the potentialities of very-high resolution stereo images for mapping and monitoring purposes. Thank to their great geometric potential and the possibility to recognize and measure small objects down to 50 cm (or even better), high-resolution satellite imagery allows great results for geomatics and 3D mapping applications. For this reason, a testfield over the city of Trento has been created. It includes: 2 stereopairs from very-high resolution satellite sensors (WorldView-2, GeoEye-1), a triplet by Pleiades-1A, single images from SPOT-5 HRG and Quickbird, airborne data (aerial images, LiDAR DSM, orthoimages and UAV images on a restricted area) as well as terrestrial data (ground points and vector maps).

Representative publications:

Poli, D., Remondino, F., Angiuli, E., Agugiaro, G., 2014: Radiometric and geometric evaluation of GeoEye-1, WorldView-2 and Pléiades-1A stereo images for 3D information extraction. ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing

Poli, D., Remondino, F., Agugiaro, G., 2013: Evaluation of Pleiades-1A Triplet on Trento Testfield. Int. Archives of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Vol. 40(1/W1), pp. 287-292.

Agugiaro, G., Poli, D., Remondino, F., 2012: Testfield Trento: geometric evaluation of very high resolution satellite imagery. Int. Archives of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Vol. 39(1), pp. 191-196


GisNS - Development of Online Geodata Portal of Cultural Heritage in Novi Sad - aims to solve the problem of missing digitized and well organized cultural heritage assets, which is one of the main priorities in the Strategy for Information Society Development in the Republic of Serbia. The project will give an important contribution to the development of city planning, land management, urban-spatial documentation, promotion of cultural values and improvement of the touristic management quality. The project is funded by CEI-KEP, an instrument dedicated to offering co-financing to projects and programmes focused on the transfer of know-how and best practices from EU to non-EU Member States.

GRAPHOS is an ISPRS Scientific Initiative for the realization of an "All-Purpose Open-Source Photogrammetric Tool". The initiative aims to develop a common multi-purpose framework that integrates recent researches, algorithms and developments in all phases of the photogrammetric workflow (self-calibration, orientation, feature extraction and dense image matching).

Representative publications:

D. González-Aguilera, L. López, P. Rodriguez-Gonzalvez, D. Guerrero, D. Hernandez-Lopez, F. Remondino, F. Menna, E. Nocerino, I. Toschi, A. Ballabeni, M. Gaiani, 2016: Development of an all-purpose free photogrammetric tool. ISPRS Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Vol. XLI-B6, pp.31-38

Within a project called “Circuses, Theaters, Amphitheaters: where, when and why” we collected data about entertainment buildings all over the roman empire. The building have been mapped thanks to their identification in satellite images and different informations linked. All material is accessible in an interactive webGIS.

The project aims to investigate the potentialities of oblique aerial camera systems for building 3D reconstruction, cadaster applications, structural damage classification, land administration services, etc.


The SENECA (Smart and sustainable cities from above) project, funded by Fondazione CARITRO, aims to develop a reliable methodology for the processing of aerial imagery for the derivation of high quality 3D city data for energy information consultation and planning.

Relevant publications:

Toschi, I., Nocerino, E., Remondino, F., Revolti, A., Soria, G., Piffer, S., 2017: Geospatial data processing for 3D city model generation, management and visualization. ISPRS Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., Vol. XLII-1-W1, pp. 527-534

Toschi, I., Nocerino, E., Remondino, F., 2017: Geomatics makes smart cities a reality. GIM International, Oct 2017, 25-27


The SLICE3D (Slovenian Centre of Excellence on 3D geodata) one-year project, financed in the framework of the widening actions under the Spreading Excellence and Widening Participation part of Horizon 2020, is dedicated to the preparation of a scientific and innovation strategy together with the business plan for the realization of the Centre of Excellence. The main idea of the centre is to strengthen the research and innovation capacities of Slovenia in the fields of geo-data acquisition and 3D/4D geo-data modelling, consequently also in the other fields related to geo-data and spatial decisions.

Solar Web

The project aims to implement a complete pipeline for the generation of a solar cadastre of building roofs located in alpine areas. The project wants to provide reliable results in a cost-effective way, using (low resolution) available data and new aerial imagery acquisitions as input. The environmental context is digitally represented using already existing low resolution LiDAR data (1-2 m resolution), while the urban area is modelled using high resolution aerial images (10-20 cm GSD) and photogrammetric DSM. Reliable models and algorithms for the estimation of the incoming sun radiance are then adopted and a WebGIS is set up for the interactive calculation of the photovoltaic (PV) potential in a raster-based form.

Representative Publications:

Nex, F., Remondino, F., Agugiaro, G., De Filippi, R., Poletti, M., Furlanello, C., Menegon, S., Dallago, G., Fontanari, S., 2013: 3D SolarWeb: a solar cadaster in the Italian alpine landscape. ISPRS Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Vol. 40(7/W2), pp. 173-178. ISPRS Conference "Serving Society with Geoinformatics (SSG2013), 11-17 Nov., Antalya, Turkey

De Filippi, R., Poletti, M., Furlanello, C., Nex, F., Remondino, F., Agugiaro, G., Menegon, S., Dallago, G., Fontanari, S., 2013: 3D SolarWeb: approccio integrato per la stima del potenziale fotovoltaico sui centri abitati. Proc. ASITA Conference, 5-7 Nov., Riva del Garda, Italy

The project FESTUNG TRIENT / TRENTO CITY FORTRESS aims to collaborate with the local high school of the municipality in order to document, valorize and not-forget the fortified structures build by the Austro-Hungarian army at the beginning of 1900 to defend the city of Trento against a possible Italian attack.

The project wants to transfer Geomatics and Informatics knowledge to students in order to show how to valorize history and realize innovative products of interest to the territory by means of ICT solutions.

The VAST - Valorization History and Territory - project wants to document, communicate and valorize heritage sites and monuments of the First World War located in the Trentino region. The project is part of local actions whose primary objectives are to (i) promote the cultural, social and economic development of Trentino and (ii) stimulate the production, promotion and enhancement of cultural activities in order to generate cohesion, knowledge and participation on the life of the community.

Representative publication:

Nocerino, E., Menna, F., Toschi, I., Morabito, D., Remondino, F., Rodríguez-Gonzálvez, P., 2018: Valorisation of history and landscape for promoting the memory of WWI. Journal of Cultural Heritage, Vol. 29, pp. 113-122


VirtualArch contributes to a sustainable use and protection of non-visible and little known archaeological heritage underground or submerged by increasing the capacities of public heritage actors to protect, valorize and communicate such sites. The project will rely on innovative visualization approaches and methods such as 3D models and Virtual Reality (VR) tools.

VR & AR in Cultural Heritage

3D models, Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) allow a direct and intuitive access to virtual digital objects ("digital twins"), visualized in real time on computer screens or smartphones or through glasses or headsets. VR / AR applications are commonly used in many areas, such as entertainment, sports and tourism, while their use in archaeology is often limited. We investigated technologies, sensors and devices (Oculus Rift, Microsoft Kinect, Leap Motion, QRCodes, ARKit, etc.) to deploy VR/AR solutions in the heritage field for virtual museums and multimedia exhibitions.

Representative publication:

- Jimenez Fernández-Palacios, B., Morabito, D., Remondino, F., 2017: Access to complex reality-based 3d models using virtual reality solutions. Journal of Cultural Heritage, Vol. 23, pp. 40-48

- Jiménez Fernández-Palacios, B., Nex, F., Rizzi, A., Remondino, F., 2014: ARCube - The Augmented Reality Cube for Archaeology. Archaeometry, DOI: 10.1111/arcm.12120

Representative projects:

- TOTEM - Trento Time Machine

- Valorization of WWI fortification

- Etruscan in 3D